Sasol Operating 1994 Sasolburg South Africa 5,600 ND ND Shell Operating 2006 Bintulu Malaysia 2,700 ND ND . Coal liquefaction is a process of converting coal into liquid hydrocarbons: liquid fuels and petrochemicals. The Secunda coal-to-liquids plant, the world's largest, will be the last the company runs. In February 2018, Greenpeace Africa said the Secunda CTL plant was the world's biggest single-point source of emissions. A need to upgrade the project to support future growth, plus a corporate drive to reduce Sasol's . As a first step of their . NR Not Recorded These approximate ratios are consistent with guidelines given in other estimates 1, which have figured that water use at hypothetical coal to liquids (CTL) plants could vary from 1-1.5 barrel of water per barrel of product for a zero-discharge air-cooled plant, to 5-7 bbl water per barrel of product for a plant with water cooling and less use of waste heat for process heat or . The resultant liquid fuel is known as synthetic fuel or synfuel.

The three stage process combines three leading proprietary technologies. sasol at a glance . To-Liquid Product Selection from Natural Gas under Uncertain Price Scenarios." Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research. 30 June 2004. From Coal-to-Liquid to PtL-SAF PtL-SAF is chemically similar to Coal-to-Liquid (CtL), in which Sasol has deep global experience at deploying at industrial scale.

In . Results from the Korean study from 2009 that are described . Several commercial-scale demonstration plants are due to be commissioned during the period 2008-12. Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) is a technology based on the liquefaction of coal using three basic approaches; pyrolysis, direct coal liquefaction (DCL) and indirect coal liquefaction (ICL) [6]. The Secunda plant uses coal-to-liquids . Feasibility studies are currently underway. New Delhi recently allocated three blocks of coal in Orissa for projects that will produce liquid fuel from coal, in an attempt to increase oil supply. 2. Aims: T o provide an insight on the SASOL coal to fuel process (Gasification and Fischer-. Sasol Mining is SA's third largest coal producer, producing 40-million tonnes of coal annually. The exact relationship between the oil price and the cost at which Sasol makes fuel from coal is complex, Sasol spokesperson Alex Anderson told Business Insider South Africa. This subsidy is responsible for 3.7% of Sasol's total revenue from energy operations, according to the policy brief, titled The Role of Subsidies in South Africa's Coal-based Liquid Fuel . . Sasol Mining also exports some 2.8 Mt of coal a year. Its Secunda plant east of. Since we launched our first GTL facility outside South Africa in Qatar in 2007, we have been working to extend our GTL footprint. Production is expected to begin in 2015, according to Indonesia's Department of Energy and Mineral Resources. [1] Contents 1 Historical background 2 Methods Coal-to-Liquid (CTL) is the process of converting low grade coal into fuel, fuel components and other chemicals. . Producing liquid fuels from coal: prospects and policy issues By Frank Camm Fischer-Tropsch diesel production in a well-to-wheel perspective: A carbon, energy flow and cost analysis In 2004 however, this facility retired the gasifiers in favor of natural gas autothermal reformers. Gas-to-Liquids Technology Technology The Sasol Slurry Phase Distillate TM Process (Sasol SPD process) is at the core of Sasol's GTL technology. The incoming coal is wet-scr eened and goes to the Lurgi 1 April 2008. OVERVIEW OF COAL-TO-LIQUIDS: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 3 2 BACKGROUND Generally, methods for converting coal into liquid fuels fall into two liquefaction processes: Apart from its chemical products, the CTL plant produces, on average, 60-million barrels of liquid . The Sasol process converts coal into FT liquids, so that over 33% of South Africa fuel consumption (8 billion liter/year) and a large portion of chemicals production (2 billion liter/year) are produced by the three Sasol plants, which consume 45 Mt of coal at Sasol I, II, III plants [6]. Sasol had previously operated Sasol I, in Sasolburg, South Africa, which was also a coal-to-liquids facility. In its interview with Grobler, Bloomberg reported that the company is considering LNG imports from a permanently moored floating storage regasification unit (FSRU . The two projects, in the Ning Xia and Shaan Xi provinces, are expected to cost about $3bn each and to have a combined annual production of 60m . Sasol operates commercial plants of both types globally and is investigating Emissions rise from the cooling towers of the Sasol Secunda coal-to-liquids plant in Mpumalanga. Using 40 Mt as a lower limit and 57 Mt as an upper limit for Sasol coal consumption, one can compute that one barrel of synthetic fuel consumes 0.73- 1.04 . Today in Cape Town, South Africa, Sasol signed a co-operation agreement with a consortium led by China's Shenhua Corporation for proceeding with the second stage of feasibility studies to determine the viability of an 80 000 barrels per day (bpd) potential coal-to-liquids (CTL) in the Shaanxi Province, about 650 kilometres west of Beijing. . Gasification combined with Fischer-Tropsch technology was used by the Sasol chemical company of South Africa to make chemicals and motor vehicle fuels from coal. Sasol Ltd. , a partly state-owned company, built several coal-to-liquids plants, including the ones at Secunda, and became the world's leading purveyor of coal-to-liquids technology. In the early 1980s, two large coal to liquid plants were commissioned in The only major coal-to-liquids production facility at the time of writing is that of Sasol in South Africa. Coal to Liquids Water Usage Prepared by Sonja Nowakowski for November 8 ETIC meeting Background Over the last two years, coal-to-liquids (CTL) development has been the subject of much . Sasol (1) Founded in 1950 to commercialise coal-to-liquids technology in South Africa Listed on NYSE and JSE 2008 Financial highlights: Turnover - R130 billion ($ 17,8 billion) Operating Profit . Sasol Coal-to-Liquids Plant Secunda South Africa The Good Natural Gas (Ethane, Propane, Butane) Oil (Naphtha) Coal Biomass Ethylene Propylene Methanol Butenes Butadiene Benzene MOST Chemicals Coal Another Hydrocarbon and Chemical Feedstock Cracking Steam Reforming Gasification Partial Oxidation And Downstream Chemical Processes Gasification combined with Fischer-Tropsch technology was used by the Sasol chemical company of South Africa to make chemicals and motor vehicle fuels from coal. For diesel, the process involves first building a plant to convert coal to gas and then another plant to covert the gas to a liquid. . As recently as December 11, 2006, Sasol announced that it may invest up to 6 billion U.S. dollars over five years to build a second coal-to-liquids (CTL) plant in South Africa with a capacity of 80,000 barrels of fuel per day. By: Martin Creamer 25th October 2013 Sasol has unveiled plans for an initiative known as Project 2050, which is designed to sustain and . PtL-SAF is chemically similar to Coal-to-Liquid (CtL), in which Sasol has deep global experience at deploying at industrial scale. The state-run South African Coal, Oil and Gas Corp. Ltd. (SASOL) will build its second oil-from-coal complex using the Synthol process . Coal would be gasified to make syngas . Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, . 22 October 2008.

There are substantial export opportunities for such "green" fuels and petrochemicals. Sasol has been working on processes to convert coal and gas into liquids since the 1950s, when it started production to supply synthetic fuels in apartheid South Africa. . There is a great deal of current interest in the possibility of converting coal into liquid transport fuels. (Image at right sketches the production process. Sasol, which has the most CTL experience, has a questionable environmental and social record in South Africa. The recent completion of Sasol's nine-year and R14-billion large mine replacement programme will provide the company's Secunda synthetic fuels plant with feedstock until 2050.

In 2004, this facility retired the gasifiers in favor of natural gas autothermal reformers ( Mills, 2016; NETL, n.d.-a ). Sasol I, built and started in 1955, operated 17 Sasol-Lurgi FBDB TM gasifiers to convert the syngas produced from subbituminous coal into a wide variety of liquid chemicals. Currently, the two ( coal-to-oil) plants operated by SASOL represent about 28 % of South Africa's diesel and petrol needs, processing some 45 million tonnes of black coal per year. Click to enlarge.) Sasol Mining's coal-to-liquids horizon extending to 2050 . China has rich coal resources but lacks oil and gas; the coal-to-liquids (CTL) technology rose as a consequence of increasing oil price, but regulators suspended new projects in 2008 after oil prices retreated and concerns were raised about the CTL feasibility and the . South Africa has been producing liquid fuels from coal since 1955, using the indirect conversion process. Cattle graze in front of the Sasol Secunda plant in the eastern highlands of Mpumalanga province, South Africa, on Sunday, Sept. 9, 2007. Honeywell (Morristown, N.J.; Process Solutions (HPS) has announced a five-year agreement to provide comprehensive services and support for the control systems of what is said to be the world's largest coal-to-liquids (CTL) plant, Sasol's synthetic fuels and chemicals complex in Secunda, South Africa HPS will support the site, providing diagnostic system monitoring . The plantand the town itselfwas built to support Sasol's coal-to-liquids facility. Investing in Coal Liquefaction There are a number of ways to invest in coal-to-liquid technology, but our choice is the industry leader Sasol . The Sasol 1 plant produces waxes, liquid fuels, pipeline gas and chemicals; the Sasol 2 and 3 plants primarily produce ethylene, gasoline and diesel fuel. Abstract. Sasol Ltd.'s planned coal-to-liquids project with China Shenhua Group Corp., set to become the nation's biggest such facility, received approval from the Chinese environmental ministry . That especially includes liquid fuels made from coal, which can be a substitute for gasoline, jet fuel and just about any other transportation fuel on which we currently rely. As a first step of their . Large U.S. coal reserves and viable technology give promise to a domestic industry producing liquid fuels from coal. He said the company still has long-term plans to develop coal-to-liquids fuels projects in India though it was still "early days". The Sasol Coal to Liquids Process The Sasol complex in Secunda, operated by Sasol Synfuels (Pty) Ltd is the world's largest commercial Coal to Liquids (CTL) facility to date. The possible innovation - which South Africa is in a prime position to exploit - will be to combine green carbon with green hydrogen to make liquid fuel. Sasol executives say the company believes so strongly in the promise of this technology that this month, it announced plans to spend up to $14 billion to build the first gas-to-liquids plant in . Facility converts ~40 Mt of coal per annum into ~160 000 bbl/day of liquid fuels ~ 27% of South Africa's total liquid fuels production Sasol, the world's largest synthetic fuels producer, is building two coal-to-liquid plants in China. The proposed PtL SAF would be chemically similar to Sasol's coal -to . Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, . Opposed to this is Sasol's Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) process, which uses natural gas instead of coal as feedstock. Sasol Overview Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) flow scheme Why does CTL have this CO 2 footprint? AIMS AND OBJECTIVES. Commissioning is scheduled in 2008.

The Shenua Ningxia Coal Industry Group and its partner Sasol, today signed a contract with Foster Wheeler International Corporation and Wuhuan Engineering Company to carry out the Feasibility Study for an 80 000 bbl/d coal to liquids (CTL)plant at the Ningdong Chemicals Base in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China. Sasol coal-to-liquid fuel plant stands at dusk on July 7, 2008 in Secunda, South Africa. Think tanks, defense specialists, policymakers and others seeking a domestic antidote to our energy woes have been calling for coal-to-liquids (CTL) as an alternative to . (Photo: Waldo Swiegers/Bloomberg via Getty Images) By Ed Stoddard Follow 11 Nov 2020 2. South African petrochemicals giant Sasol said on Wednesday it would sell its indirect interest in the Escravos gas-to-liquids (EGTL) plant in Nigeria to Chevron for an undisclosed sum. South Africa currently imports 60 percent of oil to meet its growing demands. With 30,000 employees and a market cap of $22 . The plant is the largest synthetic fuels facility in the. Sasol will build coal-to-liquids plants in Indonesia with a targeted combined capacity of 1.1 million barrels per day. The group also confirmed that its proposed 80,000 barrels per day Mafutha CTL . Sasol Overview. above and beyond the socio-environmental issues associated with coal mining. Sasol is the world leader in Fischer-Tropsch technology, originally developed in Germany to produce liquid fuels from coal.

[9] [10] Today, Sasol mines more than 40 million tons (Mt) [11] of saleable coal a year, mostly gasification feedstock for Sasol Synfuels in Secunda. 50 years experience in developing technology, designing and operating plants more than 1.5 billion barrels of synthetic fuels produced currently ~25% of south african fuel is derived mostly from coal south africans drive and fly on coal - today synthetic jet fuel blends in commercial use for last 10 years sasol fully synthetic jet fuel first 100% coal gasification. Gordon Couch. Coal-To-Liquids, Basic Facts Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research 11 (a balanced purified mixture of CO and H2 gas) and the syngas condensed using Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to make light hydrocarbons which are further processed into gasoline and diesel. Due to the expensive nature of the process it was not economically viable when oil price was low, but after oil-shock in 1970's many countries have taken active interest in this particular process. It also marks the end of an era. Sasol's Secunda facility includes the 160,000 b/d coal-to-liquids (CTL) facility. Sasol, Syntroleum, BP, Shell, Rentech, Exxon and Statoil are the major companies that have been actively pursuing the development of GTL technology. Gas-to-liquids technology converts natural gas, predominantly methane to liquid fuels. Johannesburg - The two coal-to-liquids (CTL) projects in China that were currently being studied by South African petrochemicals group Sasol (SOL) could cost between US$5bn to $7bn in total to build, Sasol chief executive Pat Davies said on Monday. "While coal is a cheaper feedstock relative to oil, the conversion of coal-to-liquids is a highly energy-intensive, costly and complex process," Anderson said. Figure 1: Process Flow Diagram of Sasol' s Coal to Liquid Fuel Process. In excess of 1 billion tons of coal has been gasified Total coal mined per year >41 million tons; 26 million tons to gasification 6 Coal Sources: 5 Sasol Mines + 1 mine as contracted coal supplier (High ash yield 25-35+ % AD) 84 Mk IV Sasol Fixed Bed Dry Bottom Gasifiers producing > 3 million m n 3/h Sasol Synfuels coal-to-liquids Regarded as a world technology leader in the production of coal-to-liquids (CTL), Sasol operates the world's only commercial scale synthetic plant at Secunda, where it produces 150 000 barrels of liquid fuel per day. Now, oil . the same technology used by its CTL and gas-to-liquids operations. 1 Financial year 2011 Turnover US$20bn. "Sasol and Tata are collaborating with the Indian government on the allocation of coal blocks for CTL (coal-to-liquid) projects," Johann van Rheede, Sasol's spokesman told Reuters. Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) is a process of converting coal to fuels such as diesel or gas. The group plans to test bulk samples of Limpopo coal at its Secunda facility next year. . It had previously been mooted that the two CTL plants could be built at a cost of almost R37bn or . It used 17 Lurgi Fixed Bed Dry Bottom gasifiers, and sub-bituminous coal to feed FT processes for liquid fuel and chemical production. Sasol's new CEO David Constable Johannesburg, South Africa MININGREVIEW.COM 15 September 2011 - Sasol has brought the curtain down on a proposed US$5 billion coal-to-liquids joint venture project in China, citing delays in having the 94,000 barrel-per-day endeavour approved by the Chinese authorities.. "Most of these emissions come from Sasol's coal-to-liquids plant in Secunda. Overview Fast-tracking the growth of our proprietary gas-to-liquids (GTL) technology and facilities is one of the cornerstones of Sasol's strategic agenda. This process is often known as "Coal to X" or "Carbon to X", where X can be many different hydrocarbon-based products. Although FT synthesis is a well-established process that runs commercially in coal-to-liquids plants such as SASOL in South Africa (Chiaramonti et al., 2014), the need for high pressures increases costs and catalyst design plays a strategic role to ensure selectivity and avoid catalyst deactivation in the presence of sulfur, nitrogen, and . South African energy group Sasol claims to have substantially overcome the technical problems afflicting its high-profile Oryx gas-to-liquids (GTL) joint venture, in Qatar, success at which is . Ltd. and Chinese partners let contract to Foster Wheeler Energy Ltd. and China Huanqiu Contracting & Engineering Corp. for a first-phase feasibility study of . CTL CO 2 Reduction Opportunities: . Sasol says it plans to replace the gray hydrogen produced during its manufacturing processes with green hydrogen made from renewable energy using the power-to-liquids process. Fischer - Tropsch Natural SynGas (GTL) Syngas can also be created from natural gas and is less costly than making it from coal. Today, the South African company Sasol has three CTL plants that together produce more than 160, 000 barrels of liquid fuel per day from coal, which provides for about 30 per cent of South Africa's transport fuel requirements. Tata Steel in a tie-up with South Africa`s Sasol Synfuel International on Monday proposed to set up the country`s first project to convert coal into liquid at a mammoth investment of Rs 45,000 crore in Orissa. The proposed PtL SAF would be chemically similar to Sasol's coal-to-liquids products, with which the South African group has decades of experience, not least in producing them at industrial scales. Coal liquefaction emits more carbon dioxide than liquid fuel production from crude oil. From Coal-to-Liquid to PtL-SAF. At the core of Sasol's operations are its coal-to-liquids, or CTL, and gas to . Sasol, a world leader in producing liquid fuels from coal and natural gas using the Fischer Tropsch Process, notes that it is a significant user and producer . Sasol is the world leader in Fischer-Tropsch technology, originally developed in Germany to produce liquid fuels from coal. The company has not, so far, disclosed any strategy for significantly reducing its emissions, nor has it . South Africa has large reserves of coal, is the world's 7 th largest producer of coal and 4 th largest exporter. Sasol Synfuels International (Pty.) Weighing benefits, costs, and environmental issues, it makes sense for the nation to pursue an insurance strategy by promoting a limited amount of early commercial experience in coal-to-liquids production and by preparing the foundation for managing associated . Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration The F-T reaction typically happens at high pressure (40 atmospheres) and temperature (500 o -840 o F) in the presence of an iron catalyst. This is centred on three key countries with large coal reserves but which have limited resources and reserves of oil and gas, namely China, India and the USA.

Financial Times. The first, using direct liquefaction, is in China with a planned capacity of 1 Mt/y of liquid products. South Africa-based Sasol have been operating Fischer Tropsch Gas To Liquid Technology (GTL) A. Nafees and S. H. Al Hashimi Chemical Engineering Program, The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi, U.A.E. Other articles where SASOL process is discussed: coal utilization: The Fischer-Tropsch process: 1950s in South Africa (the SASOL process) and now supplies as much as one-third of that country's liquid fuels. Sasol Mining's coal-to-liquids horizon extending to 2050 By: Martin Creamer 25th October 2013 Sasol has unveiled plans for an initiative known as Project 2050, which is designed to sustain and. However, the most common process chain is "Coal to Liquid Fuels" (CTL). Although a member of OPEC since 1962, Indonesia became a net. Sasol Mining's coal-to-liquids horizon extending to 2050 Sasol Mining MD Peter Steenkamp updates Mining Weekly Online's Martin Creamer on the progress of the company's implementation of its. Sasol, which produces roughly a quarter of South Africa's liquid fuel, yesterday blamed the delay in moving . The versatility of the process is emphasized. Coal liquefaction emits more carbon dioxide than liquid fuel production from crude oil. Coal to liquids, CCC/132. Sasol said it is exploring the feasibility of SAF production at its . These liquid products are then further processed using different refining technologies into liquid fuels. The present Sasol technology relies on coal as the source of carbon and is unsustainable. Sasol South African Synthetic Oil Limited SRC Solvent refined coal STG+ Synthesis gas to Gasoline Plus TOGASTM Topsoe Improved Gasoline Synthesis tonne Metric ton . The Fischer-Tropsch process of indirect synthesis of liquid hydrocarbons was used in Nazi Germany for many years and is today used by Sasol in South Africa. 1 Market cap + US$30bn Listed on JSE (SOL) and NYSE (SSL) Present in 38 countries ~34 000 employees world-wide Sasol is an integrated energy and chemicals company World's largest producer of synthetic fuels - Pioneer in gas-to-liquids (GTL) and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technology Marta G. Plaza, Covadonga Pevida, in New Trends in Coal Conversion, 2019 2.5.2 CO 2 capture in coal-to-liquids industry. Sasol's original coal to liquid plant at Sasolburg was commissioned in 1955 known as Sasol I (Dry & Erasmus, 1987). T . Introduction Coal to liquid (CTL) or Coal Liquefaction is the process of producing alternate fuels (synthetic crude oil) from coal.